Cellular Base Station Installation & Maintenance Challenges

CellAdvisor Solutions Marketing at Viavi Solutions looks at some of the challenges facing the set up and maintenance of mobile base stations.
Up until relatively recently, much of the real radio equipment at a cell or telco network cell tower was safely and conveniently stored in the cabinet on the ground or near to the foundation of the site. A coaxial cable connected the radio gear to the antennae at the top of the tower.

This meant that the installation crew, and particularly the cell tower riggers, could check the quality of the RF signal being received in the cabinet without the need to climb the tower.

Of course, plenty of the maintenance required at the tower would still involve a climb, especially if the check on the RF signal at ground level showed a fault, but a good number of checks could be carried out on the ground.

Today’s maintenance challenges
Fast forward to today, and the situation is changing. Modern cell sites use a distributed architecture in which Baseband units (BBU) are either located at the foot of a tower or located at a remote distance at a BBU hub. In this case it is likely to serve not just the antennae at the top of that tower, but a chain of other towers as well. What’s more, at the top of each of those towers, close to the antenna array is the Remote Radio Head (RRH) which contains the actual radio equipment (RE).

To add to the complexity – but also improve signal Curso Conserto de Celular quality – instead of traditional coax cable, fibre is frequently used to connect the RE equipment in the RRH to the other radio heads and to the REC gear at the BBU hub, serving the towers.

Today, riggers installing and checking the sites, often need to climb the towers with full pack of advanced technical test equipment, as well as the more physical tools of their trade – such as spanners, wrenches, hammers and multiple screwdrivers.

Recently we spoke to cell tower riggers in both the USA and the UK, looking to get a feeling for how difficult their jobs had become, and what companies like ours could do to make it better. In many ways, the riggers are the unsung heroes of the telecoms world, carrying out highly specialised tasks in often dangerous circumstances and challenging environmental conditions.

Each day, their role can involve a multitude of tasks such as installation, commissioning and decommissioning, dismantling and removal of equipment from great curso manutenção celular heights be they masts, towers, pylons or rooftops. They are also involved in the earthing, labelling, and testing of feeder cables and optical fiber; as well as the inspection and testing of Outdoor Units (ODUs), Indoor Units (IDUs), Splitters and the CPN testing and auditing of rigging set up. The list is endless.

Small wonder then that more than three-quarters of the riggers we spoke to said that they now needed between 20 and 50 per cent more time at each site to carry out the required maintenance work. What’s more, some 67 per cent of UK riggers believe their job is becoming more and more complex with almost half of the riggers adding that it has become both costly and dangerous to carry out testing at the top of a tower. Hardly surprising either that having lighter, and easier to carry equipment was high on the rigger’s wish list, alongside machines that could perform multiple tasks – preferably from the ground.

Distributed architectures
The move to a distributed architecture with the RF units much closer to the antennae and the use of fibre to link the equipment has undoubtedly boosted signal quality and improved performance. But the riggers could be seen to be the ones paying the price – especially as all the RF functions for each tower are at the RRH meaning that interference analysis needs to be undertaken at the top of the tower. That means higher operational costs and increased security concerns.

The role that standards have to play in tackling these challenges and making life easier for the riggers should not be underestimated. The major network equipment vendors – including Ericsson, Huawei, NEC, and Nokia (which now includes Alcatel-Lucent) – co-operated to define a specification for the communication between the BBU and the RRH. The specification, known as the common public radio interface (CPRI) has quickly become the industry standard for the internal interface between cell towers in a distributed architecture.

The same companies, together with ZTE and Samsung, also worked together on the Open Foundation Station Architecture Initiative (OBSAI) which defines a set of specifications underpinning the architecture, functions and minimum requirements for integrating common modules in a mobile network foundation station (BTS). In particular, this governs the interchange of user and signalling data between the BBU and the RRH.

Standards for these types of interfaces might be driven by operators wanting to multi-source equipment but the difference they make to the riggers’ job in terms of maintenance and troubleshooting should not be under-estimated either.

The CPRI interface was also specifically designed to help enable flexible cell site architectures by defining a serialised interface to allow for the different topologies of network – be they simply chained, a tree and branch configuration, or a ring network. The development of a mechanism and process to analyse the RF performance of multiple RRHs from the BBU hub is one significant step forward that can increase maintenance efficiency and reduce the number of tower climbs required.

Cellular Foundation Station Set up & Maintenance Challenges

CellAdvisor Solutions Marketing at Viavi Solutions looks at some of the challenges facing the set up and maintenance of mobile base stations.
Up until relatively recently, much of the real radio equipment at a mobile or telco network cell tower was safely and conveniently stored in the cabinet on the ground or near to the base of the site. A coaxial cable connected the radio gear to the antennae at the top of the tower.

This meant that the set up crew, and particularly the cell tower riggers, could check the quality of the RF signal being received in the cabinet without the need to climb the tower.

Of course, plenty of the maintenance required at the tower would still involve a climb, especially if the check on the RF signal at ground level Curso Conserto de Celular showed a fault, but a good number of checks could be carried out on the ground.

Today’s maintenance challenges
Fast forward to today, and the situation is changing. Modern cell sites use a distributed architecture in which Baseband units (BBU) are either located at the foot of a tower or located at a remote distance at a BBU hub. In this case it is likely to serve not just the antennae at the top of that tower, but a chain of other towers as well. What’s more, at the top of each of those towers, close to the antenna array is the Remote Radio Head (RRH) which contains the actual radio equipment (RE).

To add to the complexity – but also improve signal quality – instead of traditional coax cable, fibre is frequently used to connect the RE equipment in the RRH to the other radio heads and to the REC gear at the BBU hub, serving the towers.

Today, riggers installing and checking manutenção de celular the sites, often need to climb the towers with full pack of advanced technical test equipment, as well as the more physical tools of their trade – such as spanners, wrenches, hammers and multiple screwdrivers.

Recently we spoke to cell tower riggers in both the USA and the UK, looking to get a feeling for how difficult their jobs had become, and what companies like ours could do to make it better. In many ways, the riggers are the unsung heroes of the telecoms world, carrying out highly specialised tasks in often dangerous circumstances and challenging environmental conditions.

Each day, their role can involve a multitude of tasks such as set up, commissioning and decommissioning, dismantling and removal of equipment from great heights be they masts, towers, pylons or rooftops. They are also involved in the earthing, labelling, and testing of feeder cables and optical fiber; as well as the inspection and testing of Outdoor Units (ODUs), Indoor Units (IDUs), Splitters and the CPN testing and auditing of rigging installation. The list is endless.

Small wonder then that more than three-quarters of the riggers we spoke to said that they now needed between 20 and 50 per cent more time at each site to carry out the required maintenance work. What’s more, some 67 per cent of UK riggers believe their job is becoming more and more complex with almost half of the riggers adding that it has become both costly and dangerous to carry out testing at the top of a tower. Hardly surprising either that having lighter, and easier to carry equipment was high on the rigger’s wish list, alongside machines that could perform multiple tasks – preferably from the ground.

Distributed architectures
The move to a distributed architecture with the RF units much closer to the antennae and the use of fibre to link the equipment has undoubtedly boosted signal quality and improved performance. But the riggers could be seen to be the ones paying the price – especially as all the RF functions for each tower are at the RRH meaning that interference analysis needs to be undertaken at the top of the tower. That means higher operational costs and increased security concerns.

The role that standards have to play in tackling these challenges and making life easier for the riggers should not be underestimated. The major network equipment vendors – including Ericsson, Huawei, NEC, and Nokia (which now includes Alcatel-Lucent) – co-operated to define a specification for the communication between the BBU and the RRH. The specification, known as the common public radio interface (CPRI) has quickly become the industry standard for the internal interface between cell towers in a distributed architecture.

The same companies, together with ZTE and Samsung, also worked together on the Open Base Station Architecture Initiative (OBSAI) which defines a set of specifications underpinning the architecture, functions and minimum requirements for integrating common modules in a mobile network foundation station (BTS). In particular, this governs the interchange of user and signalling data between the BBU and the RRH.

Standards for these types of interfaces might be driven by operators wanting to multi-source equipment but the difference they make to the riggers’ job in terms of maintenance and troubleshooting should not be under-estimated either.

The CPRI interface was also specifically designed to help enable flexible cell site architectures by defining a serialised interface to allow for the different topologies of network – be they simply chained, a tree and branch configuration, or a ring network. The development of a mechanism and process to analyse the RF performance of multiple RRHs from the BBU hub is one significant step forward that can increase maintenance efficiency and reduce the number of tower climbs required.

3 Tricks to Right away Lower H2o Retention

To reduce drinking water retention we could get advantage of the diuretic houses of particular infusions. This may enable us to pee additional frequently, and therefore, can even enable us cleanse our physique in the amassed toxins which make us bloated.

Are you considered one of all those people that feels bloated from time to time? It may be due to the heat, some food you ate, or your hormonal cycle. Regardless of what the lead to, most of us are aware that sensation bloated is undoubtedly an uncomfortable trouble that we’d like to solve quickly.

Below we’re likely to give you some tips that can make it easier to the natural way decrease drinking water retention without having encountering any retenção de líquidos  aspect outcomes.Uncover how you can reduce fluid retention by making use of uncomplicated remedies like infusions, shakes or dry brushing.

Decrease Water Retention in the Issue of Hours
You will discover foods that cause fluid retention and others that, on the other hand, aid us do away with excess fluid during the body when we’re experience additional bloated than usual.

The 1st step to lowering drinking water retention will be to eliminate the food stuff or liquids that trigger our body to retain fluids. The key is to reduce the amount of salt in our eating plan and all other foods that consist of it in certain way or one more:

Healed cheese.
Lunchmeat and smoked meat.
Canned food and pickles.
Fries, olives, nuts with additional salt along with other snacks.
Pizzas together with other pre-cooked food.
Sauces.

1. Fewer Sodium and much more Potassium
Desk salt, which can be sodium chloride, need to be taken off from our food plan for good.

Even so, we will take in sea salt or sea drinking water, in moderate portions. This is due to these consist of other minerals, which include potassium, which tratamento caseiro aid us manage balance in our overall body.
To place it succinctly, we must completely steer clear of salt and consume foods rich in potassium, the instant we start to sense bloated. These kinds of foods include:

Avocados
Nuts (pistachios, hazelnuts, almonds without salt)
Legumes
Quinoa
Spinach
Coconut
Bananas

2. For your Start…Drink Drinking water
This suggestion appears contradictory, but ingesting water aids us to flush liquids out of our human body. There’s, having said that, one issue for the way we consume h2o: we must consume it on an empty abdomen.

If we drink it although consuming or perhaps immediately after, this tends to realize the other outcome and we’ll develop into more bloated.

Start off the day without work by drinking two glasses of h2o just before acquiring breakfast. In addition, it is best to drink at least two cups of drinking water each morning and two within the evening.

You may discover the good consequences of carrying out this very quickly.

three. Get ready a Pear and Dandelion Shake
For those who like shakes, we recommend you include two ingredients that have diuretic attributes to yours: pear and dandelion. Each will let you reduce h2o retention, whilst also offering your body with minerals and aiding liver working.

You can very easily get dandelion in fields in specific regions of the region. When you can not then you definately can purchase it as a herb.

Substances
1 teaspoon of dandelion (10g)
one cup of water (200ml)
1 pear
How you can get ready it
Warmth up the water, and when it reaches boiling stage, insert the teaspoon of dandelion. Allow this mix with each other for ten minutes.
Following the indicated time, amazing it and store it absent.
Peel the pear, acquire out its seeds and slash it so that you can allow it to be a lot easier to blend.
While in the blending cup, increase the dandelion mixture as well as pear then mix the mixture until you obtain a regular texture.

3 Suggestions to Straight away Reduce Water Retention

To scale back h2o retention we could acquire benefit of the diuretic homes of specific infusions. This could assist us to pee additional usually, and hence, may even aid us cleanse our human body from the gathered poisons which make us bloated.

Do you think you’re considered one of those people people who feels bloated sometimes? It may be on account of the heat, some foodstuff that you choose to ate, or your hormonal cycle. It doesn’t matter what the trigger, most of us know that experience bloated is surely an unpleasant difficulty that we would want to address rapidly.

Below we’re heading to provide you with some strategies that should enable you to normally reduce water retention devoid of encountering any side outcomes.Uncover how you can lower fluid retention through the use of simple cures like retenção de líquidos infusions, shakes or dry brushing.

Decrease H2o Retention in a very Subject of Hrs
There are actually foodstuff that lead to fluid retention and others that, on the other hand, assistance us dispose of excessive fluid during the physique when we’re emotion far more bloated than common.

The very first move to reducing water retention is usually to clear away the food items or liquids that cause our physique to keep fluids. The secret is to lower the level of salt inside our diet and all other foods that incorporate it in a few way or an additional:

Fixed cheese.
Lunchmeat and smoked meat.
Canned food and pickles.
Fries, olives, nuts with included salt and various snacks.
Pizzas as well as other pre-cooked food stuff.
Sauces.

1. Less Sodium and much more Potassium
Table salt, which can be sodium chloride, need to be eradicated from our diet plan once and for all.

However, we are able to consume sea salt or sea water, in moderate portions. It is because these consist of other minerals, like potassium, which enable us maintain stability in our overall body.
To place it succinctly, we must fully stay away from salt and take in food items rich in potassium, the moment we start out to sense bloated. These meals include things like:

Avocados
Nuts (pistachios, hazelnuts, almonds devoid of salt)
Legumes
Quinoa
Spinach
Coconut
Bananas

two. To get a Start…Drink H2o
This tip looks contradictory, but consuming h2o can help us to flush liquids from our entire body. There’s, having said that, just one condition to your way we consume water: we must drink it on an empty belly.

If we drink it when having or just immediately after, this tends to reach the other impact and we’ll grow to be far more bloated.

Start the time without work by ingesting two eyeglasses of h2o before owning breakfast. Additionally, it is best to consume no less than tratamento caseiro two cups of water in the morning and two during the night.

You’ll discover the positive outcomes of performing this in no time.

3. Prepare a Pear and Dandelion Shake
When you like shakes, we advise you increase two substances which have diuretic homes to yours: pear and dandelion. Both of those can help you reduce water retention, even though also giving your body with minerals and aiding liver operating.

You could easily get dandelion in fields in specific parts of the place. In case you can not then you certainly should buy it as being a herb.

Substances
one teaspoon of dandelion (10g)
one cup of drinking water (200ml)
one pear
How to put together it
Warmth up the drinking water, and when it reaches boiling issue, incorporate the teaspoon of dandelion. Enable this mix with each other for 10 minutes.
Once the indicated time, interesting it and retail outlet it away.
Peel the pear, just take out its seeds and cut it so as to enable it to be less complicated to blend.
From the mixing cup, include the dandelion combination plus the pear after which mix the mixture until eventually you can get a reliable texture.

3 Tips to Promptly Cut down Drinking water Retention

To lower h2o retention we can get advantage of the diuretic houses of specified infusions. This will likely support us to pee a lot more often, and hence, will likely aid us cleanse our human body in the accumulated poisons which make us bloated.

Will you be one among individuals individuals that feels bloated often? It may be because of the heat, some food that you simply ate, or your retenção de líquidos hormonal cycle. It doesn’t matter what the result in, many of us know that feeling bloated is an not comfortable issue that we might love to fix promptly.

Under we’re going to give you some ideas that will assist you to by natural means lower drinking water retention without enduring any facet effects.Explore how you can cut down fluid retention through the use of basic remedies like infusions, shakes or dry brushing.

Minimize Drinking water Retention within a Matter of Hours
You’ll find meals that bring on fluid retention and other individuals that, over the other hand, help us eliminate surplus fluid within the system when we’re feeling a lot more bloated than regular.

The first action to lessening h2o retention is always to take out the foods or liquids that bring about our overall body to keep fluids. The secret is to lessen the level of salt inside our diet program and all other food items that include it in some way or another:

Treated cheese.
Lunchmeat and smoked meat.
Canned food and pickles.
Fries, olives, nuts with added salt and various snacks.
Pizzas and other pre-cooked food items.
Sauces.

1. Fewer Sodium plus much more Potassium
Desk salt, that is sodium chloride, will have to be removed from our diet plan once and for all.

Having said that, we can eat retenção de líquidos sea salt or sea water, in reasonable portions. It is because these incorporate other minerals, including potassium, which aid us retain balance within our system.
To put it succinctly, we must absolutely stay clear of salt and eat food items rich in potassium, the instant we commence to sense bloated. These kinds of food items incorporate:

Avocados
Nuts (pistachios, hazelnuts, almonds without salt)
Legumes
Quinoa
Spinach
Coconut
Bananas

2. For the Start…Drink Drinking water
This suggestion looks contradictory, but consuming drinking water will help us to flush liquids outside of our body. There exists, nevertheless, just one problem on the way we drink drinking water: we have to consume it on an empty tummy.

If we consume it even though having or maybe soon after, this may attain the alternative influence and we’ll turn into additional bloated.

Start the break day by consuming two eyeglasses of water before obtaining breakfast. Moreover, you ought to drink a minimum of two cups of drinking water in the morning and two in the night.

You may discover the optimistic results of accomplishing this right away.

3. Prepare a Pear and Dandelion Shake
In case you like shakes, we suggest you incorporate two ingredients which have diuretic properties to yours: pear and dandelion. Both will let you reduce drinking water retention, though also providing your system with minerals and encouraging liver performing.

You could effortlessly get dandelion in fields in particular parts of the region. Should you cannot then you really should purchase it like a herb.

Elements
one teaspoon of dandelion (10g)
1 cup of water (200ml)
1 pear
Tips on how to prepare it
Warmth up the h2o, and when it reaches boiling issue, incorporate the teaspoon of dandelion. Permit this mix collectively for ten minutes.
Following the indicated time, amazing it and store it away.
Peel the pear, just take out its seeds and slash it as a way to help it become less difficult to mix.
In the mixing cup, increase the dandelion combination as well as pear and after that blend the combination right up until you receive a regular texture.